Shafi Goldwasser
Shafi can wrap any information in a riddle that is impossible to solve.
Get to know
Shafi always exhibited a genius level intellect but dreamed of becoming an improv actress. A twist of fate that should have left her dead instead found putting her computer science abilities and knowledge of technology to use. Shafi now wraps Team Remarkablz messages into coded riddles that their enemies are unable to solve.
The background of this drawing is the Weizmann Institute of Science. Shafi became a professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1993.
In this fact-file find out why we turned Shafi into a Superhero
The Blum-Goldwasser (BG) cryptosystem was co-created by Shafi.
Shafi is the co-inventor of probabilistic encryption. It is the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will yield different ciphertexts.
Shafi's PhD supervisor was Manuel Blum.
A side channel attack breaks cryptography.
Born: 1958
Occupation: Computer scientist
Shafrira Goldwasser
Shafi was especially interested in physics, mathematics and literature in high school. Shafi is known for her work on cryptosystems. These systems are used to try to keep information secret and safe. Her career includes many landmark papers which have initiated entire subfields of computer science.
Shafi is an Israeli-American computer scientist. Shafi was born in New York but age six her family returned to Israel where Shafi attended grade school in Tel Aviv.
Shafi Goldwasser
...if you're very lucky, there is someone early on that awakens something in you, a spark, an interest....
Video Credit: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
To find out more about Shafi watch this short video about Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali created in 2012 when they won the Turing Award.
Computer scientists design new software, solve computing problems and develop different ways to use technology.

Computer scientists need to look at a problem and work out a way a computer might be able to help solve it. This is called computational thinking. You don't realise it but you use computational thinking every day. Anytime you analyse a problem and plan out the solutions, you are using computational thinking.

Video credit: McGrawHill
In a Caesar cipher, each letter in is changed by three. A becomes D, B becomes E, and so on.
Julius Caesar used encryption to cipher letters and messages. These are known as Caesar ciphers.
There are lots of different ways to encrypt a message. find out more with this video from SciShow.
What is Cryptography?
Mia Epner, who works on security for a US national intelligence agency, explains how cryptography allows for the secure transfer of data online.
What is Encryption?

Video credit: SciShow
Video credit Khan Academy
this video explains the Caesar cipher, the first popular substitution cipher, and shows how it was broken with "frequency analysis".
What's the Caesar Cipher?
Video credit: Khan Academy
When a message is sent using cryptography, it is changed (or encrypted) before it is sent.
cryptography comes from greek "Kryptos" and "Graphein" meaning "Hidden word".
Check out these facts on Cryptography!
Make your Own Caesar Cipher
Julius Caesar used a cipher to communicate with his generals. He used a code that shifted the alphabet by three letters. To decode a message his generals had to shift the letters backwards three letters. The table above shows you shift. Let's give it a try. Can you decipher this sentence?
What you will need
  • Paper
  • Pencil or Pen
Find another great class room activity here
Now you try, write a few sentences or send a message to a friend!
When you are ready Hover of the box below to find the answer!
Shafi is a science superhero
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Shafi features in our card game: Top Quarkz
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Ask a Scientist- by Robert Winston
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